"I have only drawn what I have seen with certainty."
—Edward Emerson Barnard, 1894, quoted by William Sheehan (1995)
"Responding to criticism that he preferred an artistic drawing to an accurate one, he replied, "I know no difference between the two."
—Richard Baum (2007) reporting the words of Nathaniel Everett Green (+1899)
Astronomical sketching is as old as stars on petroglyphs, and as new as Arp peculiar galaxies drawn on the web. Never static, its long practice is now in dialogue with the latest electronic-image processing; yet those who draw at the eyepiece can feel part of a chain stretching back through Messier and Herschel to Galileo. Its historical depth offers a broad array of graphic tools and techniques on which to draw, from chalk and the quill pen to modern polymers, which can be combined in ways which are yet new. Sketching still has a role in solar and planetary data collection; and drawings of all celestial objects and phenomena provide valuable data for the study of human perception; and sketching can play a role in the serious experimental archaeology of astronomy. The eyes of no two observers are the same, their equipment differs, they handle pencils differently. Astronomical sketching allows a very personal dimension into a scientific pursuit (an aspect which made some Victorian observers very uneasy, but which we can now embrace). There is more than one scientific and attractive way to draw a lunar rill, depict an occultation, and sketch a planetary nebula or a starburst galaxy. It is a perfect way to avoid the dead-end of an astronomical monoculture. It sharpens the observer, and provides a lifelong learning experience, as does CCD work at its best. The simplest of tools can be used to start, and no equipment beyond what the observer already owns is required, be it but the naked eye. No particular talent, predilection, or gifts are needed for success, for the talent grows with the practice. There is no active RASC observer who cannot begin to sketch, and learn to sketch well.
|A sunspot drawing in watercolour done on 1890 Nov. 30, by Allan F. Miller, using the projection method with a 10.16cm Wrey long-focus achromatic refractor, probably from his observatory on Carlton Street, Toronto.|
Modern guides to astronomical sketching tools and techniques
- R. Handy, D.B. Moody, J. Perez, E. Rix, and S. Robbins, Astronomical Sketching: a Step-by-Step Introduction, Patrick Moore's Practical Astronomy Series (New York-Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London: Springer 2007), ISBN: 978-0-387-26240-6: the fullest modern guide in English
- P. Grego, Astronomical Cybersketching: Observational Drawing with PDAs and Tablet PCs, Patrick Moore's Practical Astronomy Series (New York-Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London: Springer 2009), ISBN: 978-0-387-85350-5: a companion volume to the above, but with a technological difference
- R. Handy, D. Kelleghan, Th. McCague, E. Rix, and S. Russell, Sketching the Moon: An Astronomical Artist's Guide, Patrick Moore's Practical Astronomy Series (New York-Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London: Springer 2012), ISBN: 978-1-4614-0940-3
- R. Sampson, "Recording Your Observations", in T. Dickinson and A. Dyer, The Backyard Astronomer's Guide, 3rd edition, rev. and expanded (Richmond Hill: Firefly, 2008), ISBN-13: 978-1554073443, pp. 154-155: an encouraging introduction - note also that Dickinson and Dyer have used both drawings and ccd images throughout the book.
- C.Roussell 2008, JRASC 102/3, 102-104: on sketching Mercury
- http://www.perezmedia.net/beltofvenus/archives/000567.html the best general astronomical sketching web resource.
General scientific-illustration techniques applicable to astronomical drawing
- The Guild Handbook of Scientific Illustration, ed. E.R.S. Hodges, 2nd edition (New York: Wiley, 2003), ISBN-13: 978-0471360117: contains a chapter devoted to astronomical illustration
- F.W. Zweifel, A Handbook of Biological Illustration, 2nd edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), ISBN-13: 978-0226997018
- M. Stevens, The Art of Botanical Painting, Smithsonian and the Society of Botanical Artists (New York: Harper Collins, 2004), ISBN-13: 978-0007169887
Photography vs. sketching
- A.D. Wittmann, 2000, in The Role of Visual Representations in Astronomy, ed. K. Hentschel and A. Wittmann (Thun and Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Harri Deutsch), 79-89
- R. Bishop & D. Lane 2004, JRASC 98/2, 78-91; an important pair of articles (1 | 2), the second of which reports that "contrary to common wisdom" the most sensitive response in the dark-adapted eye (within the limit of its optical design and operational parameters) exceeds that of an astronomical CCD in 2004
- http://www.asod.info/?p=969 comparison of Les Cowley's H-alpha drawings with Pete Lawrence's digital images of the same solar events on 2008 May 7. They are both excellent imagers, and the comparison repays careful study
Modern examples of astronomical sketching
- Journal of the British Astronomical Association
- Publications of the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers
- The Webb Society Deep-Sky Observer
- H. Hill, A Portfolio of Lunar Drawings, Practical Astronomy Handbooks 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), ISBN-13: 978-0521381130
- Astronomy Sketch of the Day
- 150-Foot Solar Tower Current Sunspot Drawing
- Work of Erika Rix, a noted and experienced solar, lunar, and DSO sketcher
- Work by a very good DSO sketcher Rony De Laet. Also see his The Casual Sky Observer's Guide: Stargazing with Binoculars and Small Telescopes, Astronomer's Pocket Field Guide series (New York-Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London: Springer 2012), ISBN: 978-1-4614-0594-8: a good introductory observing guide, well-illustrated with the author's fine sketches of what can actually be seen by the eye (but the information on the history of astronomy should be read with caution)
- Brandon Doyle's sketches, a model of their kind. Also see Brandon's article in the January 2012 number of Astronomy on "How to sketch deep-sky objects" (pp. 64-69)
- Astronomy editor David J. Eicher's regular column Deep-sky Showcase
- Carol Lakomiak's tutorials on sketching the Moon, and the Sun and Deep Sky Objects. Carol also writes the astrosketching column for the BBC's Sky at Night Magazine
- The UK magazine Astronomy Now also frequently features articles on astrosketching
- ArpGalaxies―Martin Schoenball's, Uwe Glahn's, and Matthias Juchert's drawings of 100 of the visually most interesting and striking of the objects in Dr. Halton C. Arp's famous Atlas of Peculair Galaxies (1966)
- Michael Vlasov's superb dso, double star, and solar-system object sketches can be found here
Jupiter Shadow Transit, 2012 December 20, Gordon Webster, 120mm f.8.3 refractor, at 125X — co-winner of the 1st RASC Astrosketchers' Contest!
Guides (historical) to astronomical sketching
- C.P. Smyth 1843, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 5, 277-279 (this is the short version of the paper; it appeared fully in Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15 , 71-82
- M. Huggins 1882, The Observatory, 5, 358-362
- T. W. Webb 1871, Nature, 3, 430-431:on Jovian Sketching
- T.W. Webb, 1873, Popular Science Review, 12,234-242:on sketching the moon
- T.W. Webb, 1875, English Mechanic, 22, 255: on drawing the Great Nebula in Orion (M42)
- T.W. Webb 1883, Knowledge, 4, 302-303: on sketching the moon
- Rosse, 4th Earl 1874, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 34, 235-247
- L. Weinek, 1890, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2, 201-214
- D. Morehouse, 1922, Popular Astronomy, 30, 461-464
- R.A. Rosenfeld, 2008, JRASC, 102/5, 200-205: History of Astronomical Sketching in the RASC
- L. Chimirri, et al. 2009, L'esercizio illegale dell'astronomia: Max Ernst, Iliazd, Wilhelm Tempel (Firenze: Centro Di Edifimi srl): reproductions and studies of Wilhelm Tempel's superb 19th-century DSO drawings - and the remarkable 20th-century surrealist art they spawned
- W. Sheehan, F. Launay, & R.A. Rosenfeld, 2010, JRASC, 104/5: on the technique used to make the earliest depiction of Mare Orientale in 1675
- Deep sky observer Wolfgang Steinicke has come out with an excellent account of the making of the New General Catalogue and the role of astrosketching in its genesis. Many drawings are reproduced: Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters: From Herschel to Dreyer's New General Catalogue (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), ISBN-13: 978-0-521-19267-5
- Professor Omar W. Nasim has recently been working on the role of astronomical sketching in 19th-century DSO observations http://ethz.academia.edu/OmarNasim
Historical scientific-illustration tools and techniques applicable to astronomical drawing
- W. Stanley, 1878, A Descriptive Treatise on Mathematical Drawing Instruments, 5th ed., E. and F. N. Spon, London
- W. Suffolk, 1870, Microscopical Manipulation, Henry Gillman, London
Craters Aristarchus, Herodotus & Vallis Schröteri, 2012 February 4, Alexander Massey, C5, f.10, at 250X — co-winner of the 1st RASC Astrosketchers' Contest!
Historical examples of astronomical sketching
- Galileo's Sunspot drawings
- Galileo's lunar sketches. Recent important work on Galileo as artist can be found in Horst Bredekamp, Galileo der Künstler: die Mond-die Sonne-die Hand (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2007), and the collective volumes under Bredekamp's editorship: Galileo's O: Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius, ed. I. Brückle & O. Hahn, vol 1 (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2011), and Paul Needham, Galileo's O: Galileo Makes a Book, vol. 2 (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2011). Doubt has recently been expressed (late June 2012) that the "New York" Sidereus Nuncius at the heart of these studies and associated books may be the work of a highly sophisticated forgery operation associated with the Girolamini book-theft ring associated with the notorious Marino Massimo de Caro . The New York Sidereus Nuncius is scheduled for fresh forensic examination at in labs in Berlin in the near future
- W.C. Bond, G.P.Bond, and J. Winlock, Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, vol. 8, vols. 1-2 (Cambridge, MA: Wilson & Son, 1876)
- É.Trouvelot, The Trouvelot Astronomical Drawings (New York: Scribner's Sons, 1881-1882). Also see Rosenfeld, R.A. & Sheehan, W. 2011, How an Artist Brought the Heavens to Earth, Astronomy, 39/1, 52-57
- E.-M. Antoniadi, La planète mars (Paris: Libraire scientifique Hermann et Cie, 1930)
For an intriguing project in the experimental archaeology of astronomical sketching, namely the use of techniques and instruments similar to those employed by E.E. Barnard for the 1894 opposition of Mars, see: http://mthamilton.ucolick.org/public/TwoWeeksOnMars/
For a good collection of digitalized versions of astronomical drawings published during the golden age of the practice, see: http://adswww.harvard.edu/ (n.b: the scans do not do justice to the originals)
- Les Cowley's excellent programme for determining the Sun's orientation, poles, equator, rotation direction, drift direction, and prominence position angles for any date, time and location
- Peter Meadow's Stonyhurst disks for various heliographic latitudes of the centre of the solardisk and projected image diameters
He has also written some very useful programmes for determining the solar coordinates of features on sketches.
Most moderate seized towns in Canada have at least several art-supply stores, or office goods suppliers. The best place to buy supplies for astronomical sketching is at the art stores attached to colleges (or universities) of art and design. They usually have the largest selection, best prices, and most knowledgeable staff. If there are no art-supply retail outlets near where you live, you could try internet suppliers. The RASC cannot endorse any commercial supplier above another, put please try to buy Canadian.
We wish to thank Peter Abrahams, Jim Mosher, and Prof. Omar W. Nasim for advice and corrections.
If you have suggestions for sources on sketching at the telescope (modern or historical) which you think should be considered for inclusion here please forward them to rosenfel (at) chass (dot) utoronto (dot) ca, or cdnspooky (at) gmail (dot) com.