Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American astronomer. He is best known for his discovery of Barnard's Star in 1916, which is named in his honor.
In the 1880s, the patent medicine millionaire H.H. Warner offered a $200 prize to astronomers who discovered new comets. Barnard discovered five of these at first (eventually, a total of fourteen) and used the money to build a house for himself and his bride. With his name being brought to the attention of amateur astronomers in his home town of Nashville, they collectively raised enough money to give Edward a fellowship to Vanderbilt University. Barnard never graduated from the school, but he did receive the only honorary degree Vanderbilt has ever awarded. He joined the staff of the Lick Observatory in 1887, though he later clashed with the director, Edward S. Holden, over access to observing time on the larger instruments and other issues of research and management. He discovered Amalthea, the fifth moon of Jupiter, and pioneered the photography of dark nebulae in the Milky Way. He made observations of Nova Aurigae 1892 and was the first to notice gaseous emissions, thus deducing that it was a stellar explosion.
E.E. Barnard was elected a corresponding member of the Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto on 1899-02-21, and at some time in 1901 he was made an honorary member.