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                                    Planetary Section


     Instruction. Sheet No 1 contains information regarding drawings of Jupiter and
estimates of the intensity and conspicuousness of the planet's belts and zones. The
present sheet describes two important quantitative programs: the timing of satellite
phenomena and central meridian transits.


     Observations have shown that the phenomena of Jupiter's satellites predicted in the
Observer's Handbook are frequently in error by several minutes. The exact, nature of
these variations from theory has yet to be determined; timings to the nearest tenth of a
minute of occultations, eclipses, and transits can therefore be of value.

     Observations shouldbe, recorded on Form No 2. The satellite, type of phenomenon,
and predicted time should be recorded in the appropriate places from the Handbook or
Ephemeris. The observed times of first and second contact should be `recorded in the
centre section of the form. In order to distinguish clearly times of interior and
exterior contacts, a high magnification is recommended. Note should be made on the back
of the form if anything unusual is observed.


     The timing of transits should form the majcr part of every observer's Jupiter
program. The nature of this work is described in the Journal for April 1962, p.p.79-80
(copies available from the writer). The following additional information will be found
useful by the prospective transit observer.

     Form No 3 or its equivalent should be used. to record observations. Universal Time
is preferred since it usually avoids a change of date during a night's observations.
Trans its should be, assigned consecutive serial numbers through a given apparition. The
description should begin with a two-letter code indicating whether the marking Is dark
(D) or bright (W) and whether it is the preceding end (p), centre (c), or following end
(f) which is on the C.M.; this should be followed by a more detailed description using
the nomenclature given overleaf. The location is given in terms of the belts and zones.
At first the beginner may find it helpful to supplement his descriptions with a simple
sketch. Observers are urged to calculate the spot longitudes themselves using the
central meridian tables in the Handbook and the ancillary tables given below. To be of
fullest value, observations should be submitted fortnightly.

     To keep errors to a minimum, one eyepiece should be used conslstently, and an
attempt made to keep the line of the observer's eyes parallel to the belts. The observer
should record only features of which he is absolutely certain; erroneous observations
only make the longitude charts more difficult to interpret.

                      Change of Longitude in Given Intervals of Time

     System I:						System II:
      h   o       m     o     m     o        h    o      m     o     m    o
      1   36.6   10    6.1    1    0.6       1	 36.3   10    6.0    1   0.6
      2   73.2   20   12.2    2    1.2       2	 72.5   20   12.1    2   1.2
      3  109.7   30   18.3    3    1.8       3	108.8   30   18.1    3   1.8
      4  146.3   40   24.4    4    2.4       4	145.1   40   24.2    4   2.4
      5  182.9   50   30.5    5    3.0       5	181.3   50   30.2    5   3.0
      6  219.5   60   36.6    6    3.7       6	217.6   60   36.3    6   3.6
      7  256.1                7    4.3       7	253.8                7   4.2
      8  292.7                8    4.9       8	290.1                8   4.8
      9  329.2                9    5.5       9	326.4                9   5.4
     10    5.8               10    6.1      10    2.6               10   6.0

Special Instructions for Observing Jupiter, p2                         Planetary Section


     Belts and Zones. The following nomenclature. and abbreviations are generally
accepted among Jupiter observers. It should be noted that during a given apparition not
all the belts and. zones shown in the diagram may be visible. Also, more belts may be
detectable north of the NNTB (or south of the SSTB); these should be designated NNNTB,
etc. North and south components of a divided, belt are indicated by Nan, NEBs, etc.

Longitude                                        Name                      Abbreviation
System                                           South Polar Region            SPR
                                                 South South Temperate Zone    SSTZ
(Diagram here.)                                  South South Temperate Belt    SSTB
                                                 South Temperate Zone          STeZ
                                                 South Temperate Belt          STB
                                                 South Tropical Zone           STrZ
                                                 South Equatorial Belt         SEB
                                                 Equatorial Zone               EZ
                                                 North Equatorial Belt         NEB
                                                 North Tropical Zone           NTrZ
                                                 North Temperate Belt          NTB
                                                 North Temperate Zone          NTeZ
                                                 North North Temperate Belt    NNTB
                                                 North North Temperate Zone    NNTZ
                                                 North Polar Region            NPR

     Surface Features. The following nomenclature, proposed by Budine and Reese in 1960
(Strolling Astronomer, Vol. 14, p.p.18-21), has been found extremely useful:

           DARK MARKINGS (D)                        BRIGHT MARKINGS (W)

Darker section of belt (sect.):                Oval:

Condensation (cond.):                          Nodule:

     Elong. cond.:                             Bay:

Rod  :                                         Notch:

Projection (proj.):  low:                      Gap:

                     tall:                     Rift:

Veil (or Shading):                             Streak:

Festoon (fest.):                               Patch:

     Loop fest.:          (or Garland)
                                               Other common abbreviations:
Column (col.):                                 v=very, L=large, Sm.=small, conspic.=
                                               conspicuous, indef.=indefinite, RS=Red
Disturbance (Dist.):                           Spot, RSH=Red Spot Hollow, ft=faint, ?=
                                               timing uncertain, est.=estimated.

                                            Geoffrey Qaherty, Jr, National Co-ordinator,
                                            Planetary Section, Standing Committee on
                                                 Observational Activities.
July 13, 1962.
Instruction Sheet No 2
620713 Planetary Section: Jupiter Instructions (PDF)742.24 KB
Special Instructions for Observing Jupiter
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